Steam accumulator

Steam accumulator

Steam consumption of any production equipment is rarely constant. Peak loads can be achieved at different intervals (for example, once a week, once a day, or even once an hour), in particular, during the start of the process equipment operation cycle. Accordingly, when the peak is reached, the expenditure characteristics of the source and the consumer do not coincide in time, i.e. peak steam consumption of the process unit is not ensured by the maximum boiler capacity.

Fig. 1 Chart of steam consumption by an enterprise

An example of such peak steam consumption is depicted in Figure 1. The load growth occurs almost instantaneously, and the peak values significantly exceed the average load provided by the boiler. The result is a pressure drop in the boiler. In such conditions, the boiler can not provide the required technological parameters, moreover, in the worst case, blocking of the boiler may occur due to a sharp drop in the water level and the full stop of the technological process. At best, the boiler will produce wet, dirty steam.

Thus, peak loads lead to the following negative effects:

  • Production losses;
  • Reduce product quality;
  • Increase production time;
  • Production of low-quality steam by the boiler;
  • Low fuel efficiency;
  • High maintenance cost;
  • Reducing the life of the boiler;
  • Reduce the life of the process equipment.

One of the methods of peak load balancing is the use of steam batteries, which in the period of increasing load give off thermal energy, while in the period of reducing the load, it accumulates.

In the case of using steam accumulator, a number of positive effects of technological and economic nature are achieved.

In particular, in this case, the work of the boiler house is built on the basis of the average steam output, and not according to the maximum transition peaks. Significantly improves the value of efficiency, since the mode of the furnace becomes more even and proceeds in more favorable conditions. And besides, the productivity is significantly increased, since, when technological is necessary (for example, to reduce the warm-up period, the steaming), in a short time a large amount of heat in the form of steam or hot water can be borrowed from the battery. That is, batteries can also serve as an instantaneous reserve.

The technical literature distinguishes the following types of batteries:

  • Constant pressure accumulators that accumulate hot water and deliver it during periods of increased load to power the boiler. The pressure in the battery is constant both during charging and during discharge. They are also called feedwater batteries;
  • Accumulators with pressure drop are steam accumulators that accumulate steam in the form of hot water and give off as steam during discharge during periods of increased load.

The most widely used is the steam Roots battery, which is based on the fact that hot water contained in a closed tank with a saturated steam temperature corresponding to the internal pressure in the tank decreases the saturation temperature correspondingly to the changed pressure while reducing the pressure, releasing the released heat in the form of steam. . Each change in state by sending heat (by introducing steam) or by taking heat (bleeding) causes a corresponding change in pressure or saturation temperature in the battery contents.

The principle of operation of the technological steam boiler - battery consists of the following. Produced by the boiler installation, but at the moment the non-consumable steam is sent to the battery and is introduced into the water, it condenses and gives it its heat of vaporization (charging process). The steam thus accumulated can be returned again by reducing the pressure in the accumulator (discharging process) during periods of peak load of the boiler plant.

On fig. 2 shows a diagram of a horizontal Ruts type battery. Steam is introduced through a series of injecting nozzles in such a way that the water contained in the accumulator is strongly mixed and the heat transfer from the steam to the water occurs over a larger surface and more intensively. In case of need to save floor space, vertical-type Roots batteries are used. By using special internal devices, forced circulation is achieved, therefore, when discharging, all particles of water can easily pass into a vapor state.

Fig. 2 Roots accumulator circuit horizontal type.
a - distribution pipe; b - nozzles; с - circulation risers; d - check valve; e - restrictive nozzle; f - drain valve; g - safety valve.

The maximum pressure generated in the battery may be about 15 at. Changing the design of the battery to increase the pressure is not economically feasible, due to a significant increase in the cost of the battery with a slight increase in its storage capacity.

On average, in industrial production conditions, depending on the heating pressure in the process network, the pressure in the accumulator can be from 2 to 6 at.

Accumulating capacity depending on the limits of pressure and its difference from 50 to 120 kg / m3, capacity up to 400 m3.

Currently, in Ukraine, the use of steam batteries, unlike other countries, has not received due distribution. At the same time, their use will significantly improve the energy component of an industrial or utility company and save significant financial resources.

The company "Gazgeneratorbau", in accordance with the statement of work, has the ability to design, manufacture and supply steam batteries in various configurations and performance.

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